Pneumococcal’s Vaccine (Prevnar)
Pneumococcal disease are infections caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, which also known as pneumococcus. The most common types of infections caused by this bacteria are include middle ear infections, pneumonia, blood stream infections (bacteremia), sinus infections, and meningitis. Pneumococcal diseases is a very serious illness in young children which can cause brain damage. In rare cases, Pneumococcal diseases can cause of death.
Young children are much more likely than older children and adults to get pneumococcal disease. Children under 2, children in group child care, and children who have certain illnesses (for example sickle cell disease, HIV infection, chronic heart or lung conditions) are at higher risk than other children to get pneumococcal disease.
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, on February 17, 2000 approved the first vaccine to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in infants and toddlers. This vaccine is Pneumococcal 7-valent Conjugate Vaccine (Diphtheria CRM197Protein) and marketed as Prevnar by a unit of Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, a Division of American Home Products Corporation in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Prevnar is the first multivalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine for children under the age of two. The vaccine has composition (Ingredients) such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, diphtheria CRM protein, casamino acids, yeast extract, ammonium sulphate, aluminium.
The vaccine should be given to all infants <> At 2, 4, and 6 months of age, followed by a booster dose at 12-15 months of age ;
- Children who are unvaccinated and are 7 to 11 months of age should be given a total of 3 doses (2 months apart)
- Children age 12 to 23 months should be given a total of 2 doses at least two months apart
- Most children who are 24 months of age or older only need one dose of the vaccine
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) also recommends this vaccine be given to children age 24 to 59 months at highest risk of infection, including those with certain illness (sickle cell anemia, HIV infection, chronic lung or heart disease).
Important Safety Information
In clinical trials (n=18,168), the most frequently reported adverse events included injection site reactions, fever (>=38ْ C/100.4ْ F), irritability, drowsiness, restless sleep, decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea and rash.
Risks are associated with all vaccines, including PREVNAR. Hypersensitivity to any vaccine component including diphtheria toxoid, Thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder, Adults – especially pregnant and lactating women , are a contraindication to its use. PREVNAR does not provide 100% protection against vaccine serotypes or protect against nonvaccine serotypes.