Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
Myocardial Infarction (MI) occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart is cut off, Without prompt treatment, this can lead to damage to the affected part of the heart.
Acute Myocardial Infarction sometimes called a heart attack or a coronary thrombosis, It’s result when severe prolonged myocardial ischemia cause death & necrosis of the hearth muscle. MI ussually follows the sudden occlusion of coronary artery & abrupt cessation of blood & Oxygen (O2) flow to the hearth muscle resulting in localized necrotic area in myocardium.
The most common site for Myocardial Infarction is the anterior wall of the left ventricle, another site are posterior and inferior wall of the left ventricle. More then half the deaths case of MI occur during the first and second hours before hospitalized, and Majority of hospital deaths occur during the first 24 hours discharged’s patient.
1. Risk Factor for Myocardial Infarction
- Unavoidable factor such as age, sex (male more then female), heredity (family history of atherosclorosis).
- Major (controllable) such as cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipoproteinemia and diabetes Mellitus.
- Contributing factors such as obesity, physical activity, emotional stress, excess alcohol use, sometime also effect from oral contraceptives (estrogen).
2. Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction
Patient with Myocardial Infarction has severe chest pain as main symptom, pain may also spread up into your jaw, and down your left arm, or down both arms. Patient may also sweat, feel sick, and feel faint. The pain may be similar to angina, but it is usually more severe and lasts longer. (Angina usually goes off after a few minutes. Myocardial Infarction pain usually lasts more than 15 minutes – sometimes several hours.)
3. Complications of Myocardial Infarction
Complications of Myocardial Infarction include Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms or heartbeat), ischemic shock, pulmonary embolic, cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, reccurrent Myocardial Infarction, cardiac rupture.
4. Rehabilitation for Patient Myocardial Infarction
On this stage the goals is how to give health education to the patient with Myocardial Infarction cases by assist the patient to achieve and maintain optimum helath & a productive life within the limitations.
- Develop a programe of progressive physical activity
- Give learning guidelines to patient & significant others
- Help patient to accept the limitations imposed by illness
- Aid patient in adujusting to changes in occupational goals
- Modification of risk factors such as :
- control hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia
- changing dietary habits, maintain optimum body weight
- stop smoking, quit alqohol consumption
- regular exercise, avoid strenuous activity
- resuming work after 6 -8 weeks (change to less hard work)
- sexual life after 6 -8 weeks
- follow up medications & regular check ups.
- managing chest pain at home.